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1. Shakespeare’s Biography
For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.
The papers fall into three major sections, including assessment, curriculum development, and research. The book lacks a good definition and discussion of assessment in general and differences between assessment and evaluation. The assessment section is really about technological education; and, Chapter Two and Three, for example, contain few assessment ideas. However, the first and last chapters offer several clever assessment models or approaches. The first section of the book covers new modes of assessment. In Chapter 1, Kimben (Goldsmith College, London) responds to criticisms of design programs as formalistic and conventional, stating that a focus on risk-taking rather than hard work in design innovation is equally problematic. His research contains three parts that include preliminary exploration of design innovation qualities, investigation of resulting classroom practices, and development of evidence-based assessment. The assessment he describes is presented in the form of a structured worksheet, which includes a collaborative element and digital photographs, in story format. Such a device encourages stimulating ideas, but does not recognize students as design innovators. The assessment sheet includes holistic impressions as well as details about "having, growing, and proving" ideas. Colloquial judgments are evident in terms such as "wow" and "yawn" and reward the quality and quantity of ideas with the term, "sparHness" (p. 28), which fittingly is a pun as the model project was to design light bulb packaging. In addition, the assessment focuses on the process of optimizing or complexity control as well as proving ideas with thoughtful criticism and not just generation of novel ideas. The definitions for qualities such as "technical" and "aesthetic" pertaining to users, are too narrow and identified. The author provides examples of the project, its features and structures, students' notes and judgments, and their sketches and photographs of finished light bulb packages, in the Appendix.
I, for example, am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets, “donors on wheels”. But a book on ‘Risk，by my colleague John Adams has made me re-examine my convictions.
Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is compulsory had on average about five percent more road accident deaths than before the introduction of the law. In the Unikim bellted Kingdom road deaths decreased steadily from about seven thousand a year in 1972 to just over four thosand in 1989. There is no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that was introduced in 1983; there's actually evidence that the number of cyclists and pedestrians killed increased by about ten percent. That twice as many children were killed in road accidents in 1922 as now must not be taken as evidence that there is less risk when children play in the street today. It almost certainly reflects the care taken by parents in keeping children off the streets.
How are these figures, which are both puzzling and shocking to be explained? The answer seems to lie in our perception of risk and how we modify our behaviour. An important concept that has been developed to account for peoples’ handling of risk is the “Thermostat Model”. An individual’s propensity to take risks is influenced by their own experience and that of others and this model assumes that the degree to which we take risks varies from one individual to another. The key feature in risk taking is the balancing of perceptions of the risk and the possible rewards, and this balance may be a reflection of an individual’s particular type of personality. In general the more risks an individual takes the greater will be both the positive and negative rewards.
The principal and most consistently articulated recommendation of the world conferences was that coumrics must take full responsibility for their own development. National responsibility for national development is the necessary consequence of sovereignty. The Monterrey Consensus states chat 'Each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be over-emphasized' National development strategies and policies arc therefore critically important. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation called for all governments to begin implementing national sustainable development strategies (NSDS) by 2005 and the 2005 Summit agreed on a target of 2006 for all developing countries to adopt and start implementarion of comprehensive national development strategies to achieve the internationally agreed development goals. Ihc automatic corollary of that principle is that each country must be free to determine its own development strategy. It is essential chat all donors and lenders accept the principle of country ownership of national development strategics. This implies the acceptance of the principle that development strategics should not only be attuned to country circumstances, but also be prepared and implemented under the leadership of the governments of the countries themselves. Ihe 2005 World Summit also acknowledged, in this regard, that all countries must recognize the need for developing countries to strike a balance between their national policy priorities and their international commitments.