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【12.4最新机经更新】PTE口语考试SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT

2017-12-04 11:17
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  6. SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT

  (划线部分为重点内容)

  6.35 Museology

    What is museology? A simple definition might be that it is the study of museums, their history and underlying philosophy, the various ways in which they have, in the course of time, been established and developed, their avowed or unspoken aims and policies, their educative or political or social role. More broadly conceived, such a study might also embrace the bewildering variety of audiences — visitors, scholars, art lovers, children -at whom the efforts of museum staff are supposedly directed, as well as related topics such as the legal duties and responsibilities placed upon (or incurred by) museums, perhaps even some thought as to their future. Seen in this light, museology might appear at first sight a subject so specialized as to concern only museum professionals, who by virtue of their occupation are more or less obliged to take an interest in it. In reality, since museums are almost, if not quite as old as civilization itself, and since the plethora of present-day museums embraces virtually every field of human endeavor - not just art, or craft, or science, but entertainment, agriculture, rural life, childhood, fisheries, antiquities, automobiles: the list is endless - it is a field of enquiry so broad as to be a matter of concern to almost everybody.

  6.36 Palaeolithic people

    The ways of life Upper Paleolithic people are known through the remains of meals scattered around their hearths, together with many tools and weapons and the debris left over from their making. The people were hunter-gathers who lived exclusively from what they could find in nature without practicing either agriculture or herding. They hunted the bigger herbivores, while berries, leaves, roots, wild fruit and mushrooms probably played a major role in their diet. Their hunting was indiscriminate; perhaps because so many animals were about they did not need to spare pregnant females or the young. In the cave of Enlene, for example, many bones of reindeer and bison fetuses were found. Apparently, upper Paleolithic people hunted like other predators and killed the weakest prey first. They did, however, sometimes concentrate on salmon suns and migrating herds of reindeer. Contrary to popular beliefs about cave man, upper Paleolithic people did not live deep inside caves. They rather close the foot of cliffs, especially when an overhang provided good shelter. On the plains and in the valleys, they used tents made from hides of the animals they killed. At time, on the great Russian plains, they built huts with huge boned and tusks collected from skeletons of mammals

    Men hunted mostly with spears, the bow and arrow was probably not invented until the Magdalenian period that came at the end of the Upper Paleolithic. Tools and weapons, made out of wood or reindeer antlers, often had flint cutting edges. Flint snappers were skillful and traditions in flint snapping were purchased for thousands of years. This continuity means that they must have been carefully thought how to find good flint modules and how to snap them in order to make knives, buries (chisel-like tools) or scrapers, which could be used for various purposes.

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