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PTE写作考试必备语法详解:定语从句

2017-12-01 10:05
摘要:定语从句作为从句专项里比较复杂的一个部分,很过同学虽然知道怎么写,但是理解的不够深刻。今天小编就给大家详细讲讲定语从句,让大家在PTE考试中更容易拿到高分。

  很多同学反映PTE写作比雅思写作更为容易, 容易拿到65+。雅思写作要求句子简练,逻辑清晰;而PTE写作则更注重考察学生的词汇量和写长难句的能力。定语从句作为从句专项里比较复杂的一个部分,很过同学虽然知道怎么写,但是理解的不够深刻。今天小编就给大家详细讲讲定语从句,让大家在PTE考试中更容易拿到高分。

  定语从句(Attributive Clauses)指在句子中起形容词作用的主谓结构,它通常跟在所修饰的名词或者代词之后。常见的关系代词包括:that(指人或物),which(指代物),who和whom(指代人),whose(指代人或物)。常见关系副词包括:when,where和why,关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。

  如:The man who (that) came to dinner last night is an old friend of my mother's.

  值得注意的是,有的时候that也可以作关系副词,如:That's the way in which (that) they did the job.(不过这种情况一般比较少见,大家只要意识到它的存在就好~)

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  下面先来帮大家区分一下限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

  1 对比分析

  先给大家简要介绍一下这两个术语:

  • 限制性定语从句:这类从句构成了先行词不可缺少的部分,与主句的关系非常紧密,去掉它主句意思往往变得不明确。

  • 非限定性定语从句:这类从句是先行词的附加说明,它与主句往往用逗号隔开,而且与主句的关系也比较松散,就算缺少也不会影响全句的理解。

  下面举一例给大家对比分析一下:

  e.g. The travelers who knew about the floods took another road.

  e.g. The travelers,who knew about the floods,took another road.

  第一句的限制性定语从句直接修饰先行词“travelers”,所以翻译成“知道有大水的游客走了另外一条路”,有可能还有游客不知道这一情况,因为这里被修饰的游客只是部分游客;而第二句非限定性定语从句作为插入语放在“The travelers took another road”中间,“游客们走了另外一条路”这句话本来就是完整的,非限定性定语从句的存在更强调了事件的原因,所以翻译成“知道有大水,游客走了另外一条路”,这里的游客则更倾向于指代全体。

  2 非限制性定语从句的引导词

  非限制性定语从句只能用关系代词which或who、whom、whose等引导,不能用that引导,如

  e.g. Nobody knows his phone number,which makes it difficult to get in touch with him.(which不能改成that)

  e.g. Our guide,who was a French Canadian,was an excellent cook.(who不能改成that)

  注意 :

  (1)whom, which用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放在 whom、which之前 ,也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如: He is the very person whom we must take good care of.

  (2)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。

  3 as引导非限制性定语从句

  与which一样,as也可以作关系代词,但是它的位置比which灵活的多,可以放在句首或者句末(which不能放在句首);意思也更加丰富,可以指代前面提及的状况或是后面将要提到的情况(which只能指代前面提到的情况)。例如:

  e.g.As could be expected, he opposed the idea.正如大家料想到的,他反对这个主意。(这里的as不可以被which替代,原因如上~)

  e.g. He is a bit out of his mind,as all those who know him can see.那些了解他的人都能看得出来,他现在有点不在状态。(这里的as可以被which代替)

  4 that引导的定语从句

  由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.

  注意在下面几种情况下必须用that引导定语从句

  (1)先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等 。

  e.g.All that we have to do is to practise English.

  (2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰。

  e.g.The first letter that I got from him will be kept.

  (3)先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰。

  e.g.I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.

  (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。

  e.g.He is the only person that I want to talk with.

  (5)先行词既有人又有物时。

  e.g.They talked about persons and things that they met.

  (6)当句中已有who时 , 为避免重复 。

  e.g. Who is the man that is giving us the class?

  5 when, where, why引导的定语从句

  e.g.I don't know the reason why he was late.

  e.g.This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.

  e.g.I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.

  注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。

  e.g.This is the house Which /that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)

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  下面着重介绍两个特殊的关系代词:as 和but,别看它们作连词的时候用法很简单,其实各自也“身怀绝技”哦!

  1 as引导限制性定语从句

  之前我们讲了“as引导非限制性定语从句”,其实as也可以引导限制性定语从句,常常与as、such、same等词连用,构成“as...as... ”,“such... as... ”和“the same as...”的固定结构,我想这个大家应该都比较熟悉,直接抛例句啦!

  e.g.1: He is not such a man as would leave his work half done.(这里的as作从句的主语) 他不是那种做事做一半的人。

  Paraphrase(释义、改写):It's not like him to leave his work half done.

  e.g.2: I've never heard of such things as he did.(这里的as作从句的宾语) 我还从没听过他做的这些事情。

  e.g.3: He is no longer the same as he used to be.(这里的as作从句的主语补语) 他不再是以前那个他了。

  2 but引导限制性定语从句

  but可以用作关系代词引导限制性定语从句,因为它总是用于否定句,其本意也常表示否定。也就是表示“that... not;which... not;who... not”的含义。所以,其所在句子经常双重否定,最后构成肯定意义。下面的例句大家要慢慢咀嚼一下:

  e.g.1: There is no rule but has exceptions. 这里的but相当于上面提到的“that... not”,即:There is no rule that has no exceptions.

  Paraphrase: Every rule has exceptions. 每个规则都有例外。

  e.g.2: There is no one but knows about the incident. 这里的but相当于上面提到的“who... not”,即:There is no one who doesn't know about the incident.

  Paraphrase: Everyone knows about the incident. 每个人都知道这件事情。

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  关于that和which的使用,还有一些其他限制,主要如下:

  1.that和which指物时,一般情况下可以互换使用,但当先行词是all,something,nothing等不定代词,或者当先行词前有序数词,形容词最高级,或者是any,few,no,only,some,very等词修饰限定时,只能用that而不能用which引导定语从句。

  e.g. Everything that he did seemed quite reasonable.(这里的that可以省略)

  e.g. This is the best film that I've ever seen.(这里的that可以省略)

  2.当关系代词在从句中作主语补语或在there be(存在句)结构中作主语时,通常用that指人或物,而且通常省略。

  e.g. Tom still talks like the man (that) he was ten years ago.

  e.g. The 3:30 is the fastest train (that) there is to Cambridge.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  关于如何简化定语从句

  (1)定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。

  My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here.

  →My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.

  我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。

  This is a book that is worth reading.

  →This is a book worth reading.

  这是一本值得看的书。

  (2)定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。

  The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  →The man standing under the tree is our English teacher.

  站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。

  I saw the house that was burning at that time.

  →I saw the burning house at that time.

  当时我看到那房子在燃烧。

  (3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。

  I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.

  →I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou.

  我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。

  She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.

  →She is the girl praised at the school meeting.

  她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。

  (4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。

  He is always the first person that comes to school.

  →He is always the first person to come to school.

  他总是第一个到校。

  The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.

  →The report to be given tomorrow is important to us.

  明天要作的报告对我们很重要。

  (5)定语从句简化为what 从句。

  I couldn't remember the words that he said.

  →I couldn't remember what he said.

  总的看来,在限制性定语从句中,that的使用范围比which大很多。(综合)

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