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【11.30最新机经更新】PTE口语考试SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT

2017-11-30 10:32
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  6. SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT

  (划线部分为重点内容)

  6.31 Crime rate

    The Home Office’ s periodic British Crime Survey estimates that the true level of crime (the sorts, anyway, which inform the official figures) is about four times that which is registered in the annual statistics.

    Quite often, especially in the financial services sector, businesses do not report crimes against themselves for fear of lowering their public image. Many citizens today are not insured against car theft or property loss (because they cannot afford the premiums) so they have no incentive to tell the police if they become victims.

    A steep statistical rise in crime can sometimes arise not from a real growth in a particular type of conduct but from a new policing policy - offences of "lewd dancing" rose by about 300 per cent during 12 months in the 1980s in Manchester, but only because the zealous Chief Constable James Anderton had deployed a great many officers in gay night clubs

    Sometimes the enactment of a new range of offences or the possibility of committing old offences in a new way (like computer offences involving fraud and deception) can cause an upward jolt in crime levels. The figures just released show a startling jump in street robbery but much of this seems to be a very particular crime: the theft of the now ubiquitous mobile phones.

    Conversely, if crimes like joyriding and some assaults are kept out of the categories measured in the annual statistics, as is the case, the official figures do not reflect even what is reported to the police as criminal.

    The way that criminal statistics are compiled by the Home Office is also relevant. From April 1998, police forces started to count crime in a way which, according to the government, will give "a more robust statistical measure".

    Under the new rules, crime is recorded as one crime per victim. Some crimes, like assaults, have always been recorded in this way, so the main impact of the change will be in the area of property offences. Shop thefts, for example, were the old rules counted offenders, will now count victims. Multiple thefts from cars in a car park with a barrier were previously counted as one offence but are now counted as separate offences.

  6.32 Australian indigenous food

    In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country. 'There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a dish as Australian notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without qualification, states that ‘A uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous to this country , although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols relies more upon their association with 'nature' and geographic origin than on common usage. Notwithstanding the lack of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity, founded on ingredients native to the country—after all, Italy's gastronomic identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand^ to then on-indigenous chili—the reality is that Austrians do not eat indigenous foods insignificant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans and shellfish from oceans, rivers and lakes, most of which are unarguably unique to this country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting and encouraging the consumption of native resources, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible. Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.

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