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PTE写作考试必备语法详解:状语从句

2017-11-27 11:11
摘要:PTE的写作最大的特点就是考察学生的词汇量和写长难句的能力。接下来将会给你讲解从句的使用大法。

  今天我们来讲解状语从句,状语从句(Adverbial Clause)指句子用作状语时起副词作用的句子,语法上相对比较简单,可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式、让步、条件等。

  让步状语从句

  顾名思义,让步状语从句一般译为“尽管……”或“即使……”,以表让步的含义。引导让步状语从句的连词很多,常见的有though,although,while,as,even if,even though,whether... or...等等。下面我们来看一些让步状语从句的表达方式。

  1. as/ though

  由as,that,though引导的特殊的让步从句结构,主要用于正式问题或文学问题中,为了强调让步的意义。

  e.g. Tired though/ as he was, the headmaster went out again to look for the lost child.

  2. while

  while引导让步状语从句,意义相当于although,但值得注意的是:while引导的让步状语从句只能前置,位于句首,while位于主句之后,其含义就会变成“(两者相比较时)但是”。

  e.g. While I understand what you say, I can't agree with you.

  虽然我能理解你所说的,但我不能表示赞同。[让步]

  e.g. Most digital camera owners are male, while women prefer film.

  大部分数码相机的主人都是男性,而女性偏爱用胶卷。[但是]

  3. if

  if有时也带让步含义,这时要注意“条件if”和“让步if”的区别。

  e.g. If he is poor, he is at least honest.

  即使他穷,他至少还诚实。[让步if]

  e.g. If he is poor, how can he buy the big house?

  如果他很穷,怎么能够买大房子?[条件if]

  4. 表示让步概念的无动词从句

  e.g. A timid young man, Tom nevertheless dived into the river and rescued the drowning child.

  Tom虽然是个胆小的年轻人,但他跳入河中救起了溺水儿童。

  例题:

  ___ all the world were against us, we should still stick to our opinion.

  A. Though

  B. Although

  C. As

  答案:A

  参考语法点:当让步状语从句指某种假设情况时,通常用“though”,而不用“although”。

  e.g. Though all the world were against us, we should still stick to our opinion.

  即使全世界都反对,我们也要坚持自己的观点。

  引申:

  although和though两者大致同义,一般情况下可以互换使用,但它们也有一些区别:

  1. although比though更正式,语气也更重;

  2. though可与as、even连用(as though,even though),although却不能;

  3. though可用作副词,放在句末,意在转折(如:It's hard work; I enjoy it though.),although一般不这样用;

  4. though引导的让步状语从句可用部分倒装的形式(如:Poor though I am, I can afford it.), although一般不这样用。

  三个词组辨析

  接下来我们重点分析三个词组:“as soon as”,“scarcely (hardly)... when... ”,以及“no sooner... than... ”,这三者含义相同,都表示“一/刚……就”,不过各自用法也有些许差异。

  1. as soon as

  最为常用,在句中的位置比较随意,置于主句前后均可,不用倒装,而且也可用于各种时态。

  e.g. As soon as I went in, Katherine cried out with pleasure.

  e.g. I'll return the book as soon as I have read it.

  e.g. I'll tell him the news as soon as I see him.

  2. scarcely (hardly)… when

  hardly虽然含有很强烈的否定含义,但在这个词组里还是理解成“差点来不及(也还是来得及)”比较妥当。使用这个结构时,主句中的动词一般用过去完成时;若把hardly放于句首,主句要倒装。

  e.g. He had hardly finished the article when the light went out.

  他刚写完文,灯就熄了。

  e.g. Hardly had he entered the classroom when it began to rain.

  他一进教室,天就开始下雨了。

  3. no sooner… than

  在网上找相关资料时看到一些地方说这个词组表示“刚……就……”时主句须用倒装形式,但在语法书上我也找到了没有倒装的例子,所以小编更倾向于认为它的用法同上述“scarcely (hardly)…when”相同。

  e.g. No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.(倒装)

  他刚到就又走了。

  e.g. He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey.(不倒装)

  他刚到家就又被叫出去出差了。

  条件状语从句

  条件状语从句通常由在意义上与if相近的词来引导。提起条件句,大家一般会想起由if或是unless引导的句子,但除了这些之外,你们还知道哪些其它的表达呢?

  现在,我们通过下面的例句来了解一下吧。

  e.g. In case it rains, we won't be able to go fishing tomorrow.

  如果下雨,我们明天就不能去钓鱼了。

  e.g. You can go out, as long as you promise to be back before eleven.

  只要你保证11点之前回来,你就可以出去。

  e.g. Given (that) the voters approve the funds, we'll have a new park.

  如果大家投票通过了这项资金预案,我们就能建一个新的公园。

  e.g. Provided/ Providing (that) circumstances permit, we will visit England.

  如果情况允许,我们就去英格兰访问。

  e.g. Supposing he does not come, what shall we do?

  如果他不来,我们怎么办?

  e.g. If only it clears up, we'll go for an outing.

  如果天气放晴,我们就出去游玩。

  条件状语从句的表达非常丰富,上述表示“如果”含义的词组/单词的使用都比较简单,也很好理解,建议大家勤记勤积累哦~~

  上文的最后一个例句里“if only”表示的其实就是“if”的意思,但除了引导条件句之外,它还可以引导感叹句,表示说话人的愿望或遗憾心情等。大家看下面两组例句了解一下,注意时态所表达的含义。

  e.g. If only she tells me about it! 她要是告诉我就好了!

  = I do hope that she will tell me about it!(含义:我很希望她能告诉我。)

  e.g. If only I were an astronaut. 我要是一名宇航员就好了!

  = I wish I were an astronaut.(此处为虚拟式,含义:我希望我是个宇航员,但我不是。)

  除此之外,将if only的两个单词调换顺序,就有了“only... If”,大家别觉得疑惑,它的用法其实与if基本一致,这里的only起的是强调的作用,如:

  e.g. I'll only come if you promise me that you won't invite Tom.

  除非你答应我不请汤姆,不然我是不会来的。

  例题:

  __ his inexperience, he has done a great job.

  A. Given

  B. Provided

  C. Supposing

  答案:A

  译文:考虑到他经验不足,做成这样很不错了。

  下面我们根据Collins释义来比较下以上三个选项的含义和表达:

  Given

  1. 如果有(机会等)

  Given is used when indicating a possible situation in which someone has the opportunity or ability to do something.

  e.g. Write down the sort of thing you would like to do, given the opportunity.

  如果有机会,请写下你想做的那类事。

  2. 考虑到:包括given that后面加从句以及given后面直接加名词两种情况。

  e.g. Usually, I am sensible with money, as I have to be, given that I don't earn that much.

  我花钱通常是很明智的。考虑到自己挣得不多,必须这样做。

  e.g. Given the uncertainty over Leigh's future I was left with little other choice.

  考虑到莉前途未卜,我几乎没有选择余地。

  Provided:如果……才会……

    If you say that something will happen provided or provided that something else happens, you mean that the first thing will happen only if the second thing also happens.

  e.g. The other banks are going to be very eager to help, provided that they see that he has a specific plan.

  如果他有一个具体的计划,其他的银行才会非常渴望提供资助。

  Supposing:假如(类似if)

  e.g. Supposing he is absent, what shall we do?

  假如他不在,我们该怎么办呢?(综合)

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