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1) It is wrong, however, to exaggerate the similarity between language and other cognitive skills, because language stands apart in several ways.
2) For one thing, the use of language is universal—all normally developing children learn to speak at least one language, and many learn more than one.
3) By contrast, not everyone becomes proficient at complex mathematical reasoning, few people learn to paint well, and many people cannot carry a tune.
4) Because everyone is capable of learning to speak and understand language, it may seem to be simple.
5) But just the opposite is true—language is one of the most complex of all human cognitive abilities.
8.2 Indian IT
1) Innovation in India is as much due to entrepreneurialism as it is to IT skills, says Arun Maria, chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India.
2) Indian businessmen have used IT to create new business models that enable them to provide services in a more cost-effective way. This is not something that necessarily requires expensive technical research.
3) He suggests the country’s computer services industry can simply outsource research to foreign universities if the capability is not available locally.
4) “This way, I will have access to the best scientists in the world without having to produce them myself” says Mr. Maria.
8.3 Foreign aid
1) But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.
2) Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.
3) Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watchdog groups.
4) Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.
8.4 Electronic transactions
1) Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.
2) Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.
3) The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.
4) Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.
5) To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.
8.5 Jet Stream
1) Jet stream, narrow, swift currents or tubes of air found at heights ranging from 7 to 8 mi (11.3–12.9 km) above the surface of the earth.
2) They are caused by great temperature differences between adjacent air masses. There are four major jet streams.
3) Instead of moving along a straight line, the jet stream flows in a wavelike fashion; the waves propagate eastward (in the Northern Hemisphere) at speeds considerably slower than the wind speed itself.
4) Since the progress of an airplane is aided or impeded depending on whether tail winds or head winds are encountered.
5) In the Northern Hemisphere the jet stream is sought by eastbound aircraft, in order to gain speed and save fuel, and avoided by westbound aircraft.